Tag Archives: KS2

Children age 8-11, school year 3 – 6 (England and Wales)

KS2作文评改里的机密

翻开6年级孩子的作文作业一看,文章质量不说。老师批改寥寥几个字落在卷末:“注意拼写”, “注意标点符号”。是老师太忙?是老师偷懒不上心?貌似寥寥的几个字,里面可有大玄机。
这里,我们来三八解密一下。

 

首先介绍一下英国教育部是如何评估一家学校在作文教学方面的质量的。英国教育部下面的标准和考试处(Standards and Testing Agency )制定了一系列类似ISO9000类的评估标准。然后学校用这个标准来指导教学。地方政府用这个标准来派人(moderator)到各个学校考核评估教学质量。(注:笔者理解这和OFSTED的检查评估不是一个系的)。用这个标准做尺子,那就很容易量化出有一个年级有多少学生有独立写作能力符合学校报告中的(A working at greater depth within the expected standard),有多少学生是B/C working towards…)

 

外来评审员(moderator)通过翻看学生们的作业和批改,对照标准,就可以得出客观评估。

 

也就是说老师在批改作业的时候第一服务对象是学生,也很有可能是评审员而不是学生!这视乎于该学校所处位置和校长考量 – 你懂的,校长/学校的利益关注不总是和学生/家长一致的。

 

如果一家学校非独立不达标的小作家多,对学校考评会有影响。但如果这是因为老师给有需要的学生更多的支持,这对学生来说不是坏事。

 

反过来说,如果一家学校为了争取考评高分,忽略有需要的孩子而没有给应给的批改评语,这对孩子来说不是件好事。

 

(请记住这句话,“校长/学校的利益关注不总是和学生/家长一致的”。)

 

目前使用的标准 “2017 teacher assessment – external moderation: key stage 2 writing” ( 教育部链接) 中有关章节是这么说的:

 

Writing is not independent if it has been:
– modelled or heavily scaffolded,
– copied or paraphrased,
– supported by success criteria that are over-detailed and over-aids pupils,
– edited as a result of direct intervention by a teacher or other adult, for example where the pupil has been directed to change specific words for greater impact, or where incorrect or omitted punctuation has been indicated,
– produced with the support of electronic aids that automatically provide correct spelling, synonyms, punctuation, or predictive text.

 

大概意思:

 

如果符合以下描述,(学生)作文不算独立完成:

 

– 模仿或过分依赖“脚手架”式的模版,
– 复制或转述,
– 使用成功标准(success criteria) 过分详细和过度帮助学生,
教师或其他成人的直接干预编辑,例如,如果学生被指示改变具体用词以产生更大的文字效果,或者评语具体指出了不正确或忽略的标点符号
– 使用电子辅助设备 – 自动提供正确的拼写,同义词,标点符号或预测输入。

 

腐国(见2017英国教育怪状)有这个逆常理的緊箍咒 –

不建议老师给学生仔细评改作文!!!

 

案例一

老师使用铅笔或POST-IT贴纸评改。学生修改后,老师去掉评改。 – 这是作弊!

案例二

全国KS2平均写作水平高于平均阅读水平。怎么说也是阅读在先,写作在后啊?

案例三

集体使用写作模版,但仍然被认为是优秀作文。

I got my local community magazine through the letterbox in the summer and the local primary school had some “wow” writing in it. All structured the same! Adverb to start sentence. Parenthesis. Short sentence. Verb to start sentence….

 

潜台词:如果孩子水平已经不错,还想继续提高,学校里考不住了。还得家长多费心,课后努力。

 

 

狄更斯: A Christmas Carol 精读及写作技巧

本精读学习资料料为emmaherod@TES创作。2015年开源上传分享后被下载超过两万次,广受好评。本资料介绍了维多利亚18世纪狄更斯时代(Dickensian)的历史背景,贫与富的鲜明对比。本资料并讨论了哥特风格小说(gothic) 的写作特点和技巧。   A Christmas Carol《圣诞欢歌》是一出维多利亚时代的道德剧,描写一个吝啬刻薄的守财奴Scrooge,如何在一夜间被源源不绝的灵异经历所救赎的过程。 狄更斯最初写这本书的动机只不过是为了解决燃眉之急的债务,未料甫出版即造成轰动,于短短一周内初版的六千册就狂售一空。   迄今,《圣诞欢歌》为英国文学必读经典之一。 下载:A…

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浅淡遗忘曲线和记忆单词

[kento-splash-screen] 怎样能有效记忆单词?本文介绍了心理学家艾宾浩斯的遗忘曲线,并以此为基础提出短时快速大量记忆单词的方法。 艾宾浩斯的遗忘曲线(Forgetting Curve) 1885, 心理学家艾宾浩斯(Hermann Ebbinghaus)以自己做实验,提出了遗忘曲线一学说。   艾宾浩斯提出遗忘速度取决于一系列因素,比如学习材料难度,表达方式,和心理因素比如焦虑和睡眠。 Continue…

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RPi GPIO programming – Tutorial 1: Morse Code Sender

Tutorial 1: Morse Code Sender

Controlling a LED to send a sequence of morse code signals.

Ref: https://gpiozero.readthedocs.io/en/stable/recipes.html

Concepts Covered in this tutorial

  • basic Linux command line operations: mkdir, pwd, ls, cd, cd ~, ssh, nano 
  • introduce python, virtualenv, pip, python library, modules, packages
  • electronic signal in a nutshell (on/off, 1/0)
  • light signal in a nutshell  (from WWI navy signal light to high speed broadband internet)
  • python data structure: dictionary, list; function def, main

What you need?

  • a working Raspberry Pi( short as RPi) with Raspbian OS* .
  • 40 pin GPIO head that soldered to the Rpi, if you use RPi Zero W
  • a LED

*Raspbian OS is basically an Ubuntu Linux operating system. There are tutorials takes you through the installation process.

Make note of the ip address of your RPi. This ip address is the address that you where you send instructions from your working computer to reach RPi.

Enable ssh (Secure Shell) on RPi

In the future we will connect to the RPi use ssh over wifi network from your working computer. You don’t need monitor, dedicate keyboard and mouse. Hooray! 

SSH is a cryptographic network protocol,  it let us open a secured tunnel to send and receive signals and instructions to another computer on the network. In this case the network is your home WIFI. Still, we don’t want anyone else to poke into the communication between the working computer and the RPi.

SSH is a bit similar to https. You must have noticed it when visiting some websites, such like facebook, email or banking website. https is another secure communication protocol which secures your web browser communication to these websites that contains your personal information.

enable ssh on RPi

On Rpi, open a terminal console and type:

sudo raspi-config  [return]

 

*note: What in the ‘[]’ is an operation – [return] means to press return key.

For Windows users, install a command shell – Putty

 

This command shell is the console that you will use to launch ssh.

You can install putty (http://www.putty.org/).

For Mac Users you are all good to go

You will use a terminal console comes with Mac – I use a 3rd party terminal tool – iterm2

If your Mac doesn’t have ssh installed, you need to install it via home brew*.

Raspberry Pi Zero GPIO programming

Work in progress…

Introduction

In this series of tutorials, we are going to write computer program to run on a mini computer, called Raspberry Pi Zero W.

Computer program, is a collection of instructions that a computer understands and does things accordingly.

We are going to use Python programming language. Sometimes, I refer it simply as ‘scripts’.

There are a variety of softwares we can write. They do different things, such like serving a website, plays videos, minecraft games and handling financial transactions.

The kind of software you write depends on what kind of hardware, devices you would like the computer to operate on.

This series focus on use GPIO (General-purpose input/output ). GPIO is a set of generic pins on the computer board. We attach devices, such like LED lights, motor, button to the pins.

We will use Python scripts to sends electronic signals to each pin or receive signals from some pins. With that,computer can control these devices and human can interact with the computer .

For example, we can create a pair of scripts to send and receive morse codes (tutorial 1 and tutorial 5). We can add motion sensors to detect movement, then do something about it.

Bill of Materials

Tutorials

Tutorial 1: Morse Code Generator

Controlling a LED to send a sequence of morse code signals. Use python script to generate a sequence of morse code by reading user input sentence.

Ref LED: https://gpiozero.readthedocs.io/en/stable/recipes.html

Tutorial 2: Morse Code Sender

In this tutorial we add a buzzer and a tactile button to the mix. We can type in any morse code ourselves.  Our script reads button input signals (press/release? holding press)

Tutorial 3: Light Sensor

We use a light sensor to detect ambient light changes. When it is too dark, the led lits up, and when it is bright enough, the led switches off automatically.

Tutorial 4: Morse Code Receiver

Receive light signals and translate it back to text message. We can even display the message on another LED panel.

The BFG Guided Reading Plans

出版/版权所有人:The Primary Teacher Resource Centre。本材料只供正式会员订阅人使用。请勿传播给第三方。

 

bfg

(aimed at year 5/6)

In total there are 13 guided reading lesson plans, covering each of the chapters in the book. Each plan contains a ‘reading and responding to the text’ activity which is designed to be completed with the class teacher with the reading group.

There are then follow up independent activities which the children can then complete during the remainder of the week. All of these activities are closely linked to the new National Curriculum objectives.

本套材料共13节课程。每章含有阅读和习题,建议展开活动和生词。符合新的教学大纲要求。

Each plan also has a list of difficult words which the children can check the meaning of before the teacher led session, space to list the names of the children who are working on the text and a space for a teacher notes and evaluation.

The plans have been written by an experienced primary school teacher and have been tried and tested in the classroom.

Gangsta Granny Guided Reading Plans

出版/版权所有人:The Primary Teacher Resource Centre。本材料只供正式会员订阅人使用。请勿传播给第三方。

 

ganstagranny

(aimed at year 5)

In total there are 13 guided reading lesson plans, covering each of the chapters in the book. Each plan contains a ‘reading and responding to the text’ activity which is designed to be completed with the class teacher with the reading group.

There are then follow up independent activities which the children can then complete during the remainder of the week. All of these activities are closely linked to the new National Curriculum objectives.

本套材料共13节课程。每章含有阅读和习题,建议展开活动和生词。符合新的教学大纲要求。

Each plan also has a list of difficult words which the children can check the meaning of before the teacher led session, space to list the names of the children who are working on the text and a space for a teacher notes and evaluation.

The plans have been written by an experienced primary school teacher and have been tried and tested in the classroom.

War Horse Guided Reading Plans

出版/版权所有人:The Primary Teacher Resource Centre。本材料只供正式会员订阅人使用。请勿传播给第三方。

warhorse

 (aimed at year 6/7)

In total there are 11 guided reading lesson plans, covering each of the chapters in the book. Each plan contains a ‘reading and responding to the text’ activity which is designed to be completed with the class teacher with the reading group. There are then follow up independent activities which the children can then complete during the remainder of the week. All of these activities are closely linked to the new National Curriculum objectives.

本套材料共11节课程。每章含有阅读和习题,建议展开活动和生词。符合新的教学大纲要求。

Each plan also has a list of difficult words which the children can check the meaning of before the teacher led session, space to list the names of the children who are working on the text and a space for a teacher notes and evaluation.

To see an example of one of our guided reading plans please click here. (chapter 2)  样本,下载样板 – 第2章

The plans have been written by an experienced primary school teacher and have been tried and tested in the classroom.

Carrie’s War Guided Reading Plans

出版/版权所有人:The Primary Teacher Resource Centre。本材料只供正式会员订阅人使用。请勿传播给第三方。

carrieswar

This pack includes guided reading plans for the following text:
Carrie’s War (aimed at year 6)
In total there are 13 guided reading lesson plans, covering each of the chapters in the book. Each plan contains a ‘reading and responding to the text’ activity which is designed to be completed with the class teacher with the reading group. There are then follow up independent activities which the children can then complete during the remainder of the week. All of these activities are closely linked to each of the reading assessment focuses and these are listed at the beginning of each plan.

本套材料共13节课程。每章含有阅读和习题,建议展开活动和生词。

Each plan also has a list of difficult words which the children can check the meaning of before the teacher led session, space to list the names of the children who are working on the text and a space for a teacher notes and evaluation.

To see an example of one of our guided reading plans please click here.  下载此类阅读反应题目样本

The plans have been written by an experienced primary school teacher and have been tried and tested in the classroom.